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CFBC Boiler

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CFBC BOILER : Available in 35 TPH – 120 TPH capacities


Boiler in which coal is burnt in an environment of high concentration of bed material (mineral matter) derived from combustion of coal retained by using cyclone / Separators / other means. This bed material is fluidized by primary air (a part of combustion air).

The high concentration of bed material along with staged air supply ensures that bulk combustion temperatures do not exceed 950°C making it environment friendly (lesser production of NOx) means of utilizing coal.

In CFBC boiler, this ash (mineral matter) is separated using a cyclone or similar device and RECYCLED back and hence termed as CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED.

In a fluidised-bed combustor, combustion occurs when proven worldwide for allowing a wide range of fuelthe mixture of fuel and fuel ash particles / Bed material is suspended by using a continuous stream of primary combustion air to create turbulence in the bed. The gas cushion between the solids allows the particles to move freely, giving the bed a liquid-like (fluidised) characteristic.


With emission norms getting stringent every day, it is becoming a challenge to install and operate AFBC boilers due to high SOx and NOx emissions. Industry having requirement of smaller range boilers say less than 80 TPH are forced to install costly FGC technologies. This not only impact CAPEX but OPEX also.

CFBC, is a better alternative to AFBC or even Pulverised Combustion (PC).

CFBC technology offers several benefits :

CFBC boilers are proven worldwide for allowing a wide range of fuel qualities and sizes to be burnt.

Emissions of SOx and NOx are significantly reduced without the addition of expensive flue gas emissions control systems. This is due to the fact that the combustion temperature in a CFBC boiler (800 – 900ºC) is significantly controlled as compared to AFBC and lower than in PC boiler (1300–1700ºC), which results in considerably reduced NOx formation.

Majority of the sulphur in the coal is captured by limestone that is injected into the furnace; about 90% to 95% SO2 reduction can be achieved.

The lower combustion temperature also limits ash fouling and corrosion of heat transfer surfaces allowing the CFBC to handle fuels that are difficult to burn in PC boiler.

Even though the combustion temperature of a CFBC boiler is low, the circulation of hot particles provides efficient heat transfer to the furnace walls and allows a longer residence time for combustion and limestone reaction. This results in good combustion efficiencies

  • Ability to burn wide range of design fuels
  • Fuel cost is largest component of a power plants operating cost thereby providing the highest opportunity for fuel cost saving
  • Ability to co-fire carbon neutral fuels / Biomass to meet country / utility green power goals
  • Effective and economical sulfur capture in furnace using Limestone
  • Calcium rich ash can be reactivated for further SOx reduction, recycled or landfilled
  • Very low NOx furnace levels
  • Simple SNCR can be used for further NOx reduction if needed
  • Dry process requiring no water


Current designs and capacities offered by most of Indian Suppliers are for larger size requirements. Smaller capacity boilers are not Cost effective due to high royalties and overheads of these companies.

For small sizes specially for Process Steam requirement, no other option than Imported Boilers having reliability and spare parts issues.


  • Fuel flexibility
  • Long burning time for high thermal efficiency
  • Low Maintenance
  • High Availability / higher reliability
  • Low LOI in Ash
  • Low SOx, NOx, and CO emission
  • Low Bed Material consumption
  • Greater solid recalculation ratio – for higher combustion efficiency.
  • Uniform temp. profile across the furnace height
  • Better turn down ratios
  • Higher availability (> 93 %)
  • Lower erosion
  • Minimum operating cost.
  • Automated operation.


In pursuit to provide industry an innovative, viable and cost-effective solution, Mago Thermal offers smaller and medium range CFBC boilers (as small as 35 TPH) with “HEIST”.

These boilers are proper CFBC technology with all the advantages possible.

With nominal incremental price over AFBC boilers, Mago Thermal CFBC boilers are best option for better efficiency and emission norms. Some of features including :

  • Compact, economical design
  • Higher combustion efficiency >87 % on coal
  • Lower power consumption.
  • Low maintenance cost
  • In furnace Sulfur capture with addition of finer particles of CaCO3 ensure 95 to 97 % sulfur capture, hence no FGD required
  • Low NOx emission
  • Less refractory hence quicker startup / lower maintenance
  • Lower erosion issues
  • Higher reliability & availability


  • New CFBC Boiler ranging from 35 TPH to 120 TPH. Pressure up to 125 Ata and Superheater Steam Temperature up to 548 DegC.